Chromosomes

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Autotriploids in meiosis

An autotriploid has three sets of chromosomes, all with the same karyotype. Therefore, each chromosome in a triploid occurs in groups of 3 homologues - chromosome is trisomic

Autotriploids in meiosis

 An autotriploid has three sets of chromosomes, all with the same karyotype. Therefore, each chromosome in a triploid occurs in groups of 3 homologues - chromosome is trisomic.

 

Autopolyploids

 An autopolyploid has more than two sets of chromosomes that all have the same karyotype.
 

Polyploidy: Multiple sets of chromosomes

A polyploid has more than 2 sets of chromosomes and is prevalent in plants but rare in animals. Many grass species are polyploid; some species can have more than 10 sets of chromosomes.
 

Chromosome ideograms: Understanding the ISCN mapping system

A consistent numbering system is essential for mapping chromosomes. In Paris 1971 a mapping system known as the International System for Cytogenetic Nomenclature (ISCN) was established. 

Preparation of a karyogram of a karyotype

Karyograms are photographic representations of the karyotype of an individual, usually prepared from metaphase cells

Chromosome banding

Chromosomes display a banded pattern when treated with some stains. Bands are alternating light and dark stripes that appear along the lengths of chromosomes.

Karyotype: The nature of eukaryotic nuclear chromosomes

The set of chromosomes as viewed under the microscope is called a karyotype. The karyotype of an organism is defined by a number of visible characteristics. We also use the term genome to describe one unique set of chromosomes – the basic chromosome set “x”.

Recombination: Creating variation in gametes

Crossing-over at prophase I (pachytene) and independent assortment at metaphase I are responsible for rearranging DNA during meiosis producing gametes that are genetically different.

 

Meiosis/Gametogenesis in animals

Gametogenesis is the process of forming gametes with a haploid number of chromosomes (n) from diploid cells (2n) of the germ line