What is Forensic Genetics?

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When we use DNA to solve Forensic problems.

The development and application of DNA technology has revolutionized forensic science. The availability of commercial STR (short tandem repeats) kits has made it possible to generate accurate DNA data in a relatively short time. This has brought about significant changes to how we approach forensic analysis and interpretation today. The combination of technical advances and high levels of standardization, including the constant validation of the quality of information, have led to forensic DNA analysis and interpretation being recognised as a robust and reliable forensic tool worldwide.

Characterisation, or ''typing," of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) for purposes of criminal extension of the forensic typing of blood that has been common practice for many years. Forensic typing has progressed from the typing of proteins (in blood) coded for by DNA to the typing of DNA itself. Genetically determined variation in proteins is the basis of blood groups, tissue types, and serum protein types. With the development and application of molecular genetics in forensic science it has become possible to study the person-to-person differences in parts of DNA that are not involved in coding for proteins, and it is primarily these differences that are used in forensic applications of DNA typing for human identification.
DNA typing was first used in casework in 1985 in the United Kingdom and first used in the United States by commercial laboratories in late 1986 and by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) in 1988. With the development of standards for data collection and analysis, management of DNA typing data, legal, societal, and ethical issues surrounding DNA typing, this technology has become the preferred method used to distinguish between individuals in forensic science.
An understanding of forensic DNA typing lies in understanding of the architecture of human genomes, DNA used in forensic typing and how this DNA is inherited and how it evolves.

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