Autopolyploids

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 An autopolyploid has more than two sets of chromosomes that all have the same karyotype.
 

Autopolyploids are symbolized with letters of the alphabet. One letter is used to represent a set of chromosomes with a particular karyotype.

Genomes of a triploid = AAA
Genomes of a hexaploid = BBBBBB
Genomes of a octoploid = CCCCCCCC

Even polyploids have an even number of chromosome sets: 

 Tetraploid has 4 chromosome sets = 4x
 Hexaploid has chromosome 6 sets = 6x
 Octoploid has 8 chromosome sets = 8x

Uneven polyploids have an uneven number of chromosome sets.

 Triploid has 3 chromosome sets = 3x
 Pentaploid has 5 chromosome sets = 5x
 Heptaploid has 7 chromosome sets = 7x

Even polyploids are generally more fertile than uneven polyploids, because uneven polyploids have a higher probability of producing monovalents that may or may not be included in forming gametes.

Origin of autopolyploids

There are various modes for the origin of polyploids. 
They arise by:
• Somatic doubling during mitosis, 
• Non-reduction in meiosis leading to the production of unreduced gametes, 
• Polyspermaty (fertilization of the egg my two male nuclei), and 
• Endoreplication (replication of the DNA but no cytokinesis).